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This is defined as a chip-removing cutting process. A distinction is made between chipping with geometrically determined cutting edges (e.g. turning, milling, drilling, planing, sawing) and geometrically indeterminate cutting edges (e.g. grinding, honing, lapping, sliding chips).

With the calculation tool Cost Control, the processing times for different cutting processes can be calculated easily and quickly. It is possible to calculate the times in several stages from approximate (involving lower number of inputs) to exactly (input of the individual cutting steps and cutting material selection).


During turning, the cutting movement of the rotating workpiece and the auxiliary movement (feed and delivery) are performed by the tool. After completion of the turning operation, the workpiece in the machined region is rotationally symmetrical to the axis of rotation. There are several different turning processes including: facing, round turning, screw turning, rolling, profiling, and turning.

Drilling and tapping

Drilling is done with a mostly double-edged tool (drill). The cutting tool penetrates the material with a circular cutting movement and creates an inner mostly cylindrical and rotationally symmetrical body (drill hole).


During milling, individual chips are lifted off the mostly cubic workpiece by special tools rotating around their own axis. The cutting movement is performed by the tool and the auxiliary movement (feed and delivery) of the tool and / or the workpiece. The following are examples of milling processes: Face milling, hobbing, profile milling, screw milling, circular milling, form milling and plunge milling.


Sawing is a manufacturing process for cutting and slitting workpieces. The cutting movement can be straight (band or hacksaw) or circular (circular saw). The feed motion is performed in a direction perpendicular to the cutting direction plane with a narrow multi-toothed tool. The tool carries out the cutting and feed movement.


During grinding, the material is removed at high speed by numerous bonded abrasive grains. This method is also used to obtain a small dimensional tolerance, a geometric surface as accurate as possible or a specific surface condition.


Manfred Esser


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